In the American company City Labs created the first batch of batteries based on the new generation of the radioactive isotope of hydrogen - tritium. They are extremely durable over a wide range of temperatures and can withstand prolonged exposure to adverse physical factors.
The young company was founded in 2005. Its development department is headed by Candidate of Physical and Mathematical Sciences Larry Olsen (Larry Olsen), who created the first commercial model of radioisotope source of energy in the late 1970s. Then, by order of McDonnell Douglas was constructed and successfully used in pacemakers batch of several hundred "nuclear battery".
New durable independent energy sources are based on a simple physical effect: natural tritium undergoes beta decay, emitting an electron. The electrons accumulated on one metal plate and forming a potential difference relative to the second electrode forming a pair.
The complexity of the practical implementation is the selection of the optimum geometry of the element, the multi-layer microstructure calculations and application of materials with a high degree of purity.
Tritium battery P100 sample 2008
The energy of the electrons released during radioactive decay of tritium is quite small (less than 18.6 keV). Therefore, electrons are completely retained even thin materials, not to mention a specially designed body shell batteries.
Unlike conventional batteries, do not contain tritium sources alkaline electrolyte, they are not significant pressure increase occurs and causes no other disorders for integrity.
Because of the low energy electrons and high reliability design "nuclear battery" may represent a radiation hazard only in the case of intentional ingestion and tamper content. With a simple depressurization even prolonged outdoor exposure is negligible.
Tritium power supplies are justified in those areas that require longer battery life as much as possible and there is no need for a large current.
Model P100, introduced in 2008, was characterized by a voltage of 0.75 V and a maximum power of 75 NW. Over the past four years the company has achieved considerable success.
Tritium battery EOL20KY15 sample of 2011
The recent development of City Labs - EOL20KY15 model provides surface mount board. It provides a voltage of 3.0 V and a smooth reduction in power from 50 mW to 16 mW beginning at the end of the period of use. Like other elements of power, they can be connected in series or parallel circuit, increasing the amperage or voltage.
Among the devices in which it is advisable to use "nuclear batteries" indicates implants, sensors, clocks, sights illuminated, indicating a small-sized system, as well as other low-power electronics.
Active development of the battery using beta decay, conducted since 1953. Lately radioactive isotopes have been tested various elements: strontium (Sr-90), yttrium (Y-90), promethium (Pm-147), nickel (Ni-63) and others. All prototypes were ineffective and rapidly degraded due to the destruction of the internal structure of a powerful flow of electrons.
Low-current tritium battery is much more durable listed peers. The company guarantees performance at temperatures ranging from -40 ° C to + 80 ° C for 20 years. At the same time the results of expert evaluation specialists Lockheed Martin tritium batteries capable of withstanding a long time cooling down to -50 and heated to 150 ° C.
While the company produces custom-made items valued at more than two thousand dollars. With the increase of production capacity prices will fall to a more reasonable level.